Komunikasi Efektif dengan Puisi Naratif

32

Oleh : Yulhasni

Coba simak petikan puisi Iyut Fitra berjudul ‘’Percintaan Hulu dan Muara’’ berikut ini:
//jangan pernah kau ragukan//. ini bukan sajak terakhirku, kekasih/sebagaimana hulu./ ia selalu
menyimpan rindu pada muara/sebuah pertemuan yang tak pernah.// hanya tumpukan dari
gelisah/lalu desir air.// potongan-potongan ranting yang tersangkut/“sampaikan salam pada
muara.// aku hulu yang berkabung rindu!”//demikianlah senantiasa ia nyanyikan di senja-senja
lembab/juga taring waktu yang runcing//. Karya Iyut Fitra yang termaktub dalam beberapa buku
kumpulan puisnya selalu percaya akan cerita dalam kata.

Dalam beberapa literatur sastra disebutkab, puisi naratif adalah puisi yang di dalamnya
mengandung suatu cerita, menjadi pelaku, perwatakan, setting, maupun rangkaian peristiwa
tertentu yang menjalin suatu cerita. Jenis puisi yang termasuk dalam jenis puisi naratif ini adalah
balada yang dibedakan menjadi folk ballad dan literary ballad. Ini adalah ragam puisi yang
berkisah tentang kehidupan manusia dengan segala macam sifat pengasihnya, kecemburuan,
kedengkian, ketakutan, kepedihan, dan keriangannya. Jenis puisi lain yang termasuk dalam puisi
naratif adalah poetic tale, yaitu puisi yang berisi dongeng-dongeng rakyat.

Mama S Mahayana menyebut bahwa model puisi naratif seperti ini kerap dikategorikan
sebagai bentuk puisi epik. Puisi epik (naratif) merupakan genre puisi yang paling tua dalam
khazanah sastra. Puisi epik sebagai puisi yang mengisahkan kepahlawanan. Kata epik berasal
dari bahasa Latin, epicus dan dalam bahasa Yunani, epikos yang kemudian menurunkan kata
epos. Dalam bahasa Indonesia, kata epik dan epos sering digunakan untuk pengertian yang sama,
yaitu yang berkaitan dengan cerita kepahlawanan atau wiracarita.

Mencermati kecenderungan wilayah penciptaan puisi kontemporer Indonesia saat ini,
terutama yang terbit di berbagai media cetak nasional dan lokal, puisi naratif mendapat tempat
yang signifikan. Tentu saja dalam sejarah perkembangan perpuisian di tanah air, puisi naratif
cenderung dinilai sebagai teks retorika tanpa makna.

Seperti kita pahami bahwa teks puisi memiliki cirri khas penting seperti majas/metafora,
pemakaian rima, ritme, teknik korespondensi, dan tipografi. Puisi kemudian memunculkan
berbagai macam bentuk ekspresi emosi. Namun dalam banyak ahli berpendapat dan fakta di
sekitar wilayah penciptaan, puisi kemudian tidak berhenti pada ciri seperti itu saja. Teks puisi yang semula dipahami penyair hanyalah ungkapan perasaan yang individualis, kemudian
melebar dalam peran-peran sosial si penyair di tengah-tengah masyarakat. Kenyataan ini yang
menunjukkan puisi tidak saja berperan sebagai media mengekspresikan rasa, yang melahirkan
puisi lirik, tetapi juga digunakan sebagai media menyampaikan ide, gagasan, informasi, dan
kisah, yang melahirkan puisi naratif. Sejak inilah puisi menyentuh wilayah retorika.

Mari kita perhatikan puisi puisi Ilham Wahyudi berjudul ‘’Bukan Hanya Akan
Tertinggal’’ : //seberapa jauhkah kita berhasil mengenang kembali/sebuah pertemuan?//padahal
dulu kita tidak pernah/mempercayai perpisahan, sekalipun.// tapi pelan-pelan kita/membiarkan
semuanya merangkak meninggalkan halaman batin kita.//. Puisi naratif seperti ini mencerminkan
satu penyampaian kisah yang mampu dipahami pembaca secara sederhana. Seperti kebanyakan
puisi naratif, Ilham Wahyudi mempunyai kesan tentang ekspresi ide yang sederhana tapi selalu
kaya dengan metafora.

Meski puisi naratif merupakan rangkaian teks yang digunakan sebagai penyampaian ide,
tetapi seringkali penyair akhirnya terjebak dalam slogan-slogan seperti layaknya sebuah teks
pidato. Dalam puisi M Raudah Jambak berjudul ’’Indonesia, Merah-Putihku’’ akan terlihat teks
puisi berubah menjadi teks retorika. //Indonesia, Indonesia/di negeri ini aku dilahirkan/di negeri
ini aku dibesarkan/di negeri ini aku menggapai/segala impian/segala harapan/segala cita/dan
cinta/Indonesia, Indonesia//.

Meski demikian, sebenarnya puisi naratif dalam teks retorika memiliki keunggulan
tersendiri. Pada puisi M Raudah Jambak di atas, meski teks retorika dalam bentuk puisi, akan
tetapiu teks-teksnya bukan saja menyenangkan, tetapi punya daya evokasi tinggi untuk memikat
pendengar; sebagai salah satu syarat retorika yang baik. Pertemuan antara puisi dan retorika yang
melahirkan teks retorika dalam bentuk puisi, menegaskan posisi dan peran sosial sastra. Teks
sastra bukan hanya untuk 'klangenan', tulis Nyoman Tusthi Eddy, tetapi dalam bentuknya
sebagai teks retorika dapat memberikan kontribusi sosial yang positif.

Terkadang narasi dalam teks puisi merupakan senjata ampuh untuk terhindar dari
kecenderungan prosa liris. Beberapa puisi Ilham Wahyudi, misalnya, cenderung ingin
mendekatkan puisi pada keinginan bercerita. Teks yang terlalu panjang dalam puisi Ilham
Wahyudi berjudul ’’Bukan Semacam Dengus Nafas Atau Segelas Cappucino, Januari ke Maret,
Kapal Buat Ibu, dan Tak Ada Lagi Jarak Di Sini’’, memperlihatkan kecenderungan si penyair
untuk membuat cerita pendek. Taktik puisi naratif seperti ini juga kita baca pada puisi-puisi Joko Pinurbo, Goenawan Mohamad, Radhar Panca Dahana, bahkan Sapardi Djoko Damano. Kekuatan
puisi naratif terletak pada kemampuan penyair menyampaikan teks pesan kepada pembaca lewat
rangkaian bahasa yang komunikatif.

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